The device which transfers heat energy from a source of heat to a heat sink is called a Heat Pump. Heat pumps move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one.
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The most common design of a heat pump has four main components i.e. a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, and a compressor. In heating mode, heat pumps are three to four times more effective at heating than simple electrical resistance heaters for the same amount of electricity. It is also important to note that the cost of installation for heat pumps is higher than the electric resistance heaters.
There are several important factors that may affect the efficiency of a heat pump such as climate, temperature, auxiliary equipment, technology, size, and control system.
cove.tool supports the following three types of Heat Pumps:
a. Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP): Air source heat pumps are relatively easy and inexpensive to install and have therefore historically been the most widely used heat pump style. However, they suffer limitations due to their use of the outside air as a heat source. The higher temperature differential during periods of extreme cold leads to declining efficiency.
b. Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP): Ground source heat pumps or geothermal heat pumps typically have higher efficiencies than air-source heat pumps. The main reason behind that is geothermal heat pumps draw heat from the ground or groundwater which is at a relatively constant temperature all year than air. The installation cost for geothermal heat pumps is really high due to the need for the drilling of boreholes for vertical placement of heat exchanger piping or the digging of trenches for horizontal placement of the piping.
c. Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP): A WSHP is a type of heat pump that operates by rejecting heat to a water-pipe system (or water loop) during the summer or by absorbing heat from the same water loop during the winter. If multiple units of WSHPs are installed, they can all be serviced by a common water-loop system.