The electrical grid carbon factor is the amount of greenhouse gasses (CO2e) produced for each kilowatt hour of electricity produced, measured in kgCO2e/kWh or gCO2e/kWh. This value is typically reported at the 100-year GWP value.
The grid carbon factor captures information about the mix of sources used in generating power for that grid or region. Power sources like solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, coal, and gas each have a different environmental impact. In this way, the grid carbon factor is a carbon footprint measurement for the electricity consumed.
For example, if the grid carbon factor for a particular region is high, it means that a significant portion of the electricity in that area comes from fossil fuel-based power plants, which release more CO2. On the other hand, if the grid carbon factor is low, it indicates that a larger proportion of the electricity is generated from renewable sources with minimal or no CO2 emissions.